2 edition of mechanism of resistance to simazine of two biotypes of Senecio vulgaris L. found in the catalog.
mechanism of resistance to simazine of two biotypes of Senecio vulgaris L.
Luka Okech Abe
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||ix, 34 l.|
|Number of Pages||34|
Triazines are broad-spectrum herbicides that target the plastoquinone B (PQB) binding site located on the photosystem II D1 protein .Triazines have been using routinely in agricultural and non-agricultural systems for many decades due to their effective weed control .However, the first case of resistance to triazines in weeds was reported in the early s in Senecio vulgaris L. , and. Some S. vulgaris biotypes showed increased resistance to various herbicides such as simazine, atrazine, bromacil, pyrazon, buthidazole and linuron. Therefore, S. vulgaris is considered as a troublesome weed, especially in horticulture where frequent cultivation occurs (Robinson et al., ).
Senecio vulgaris (10 countries), Solanum nigrum (11 countries), Amaranthus hybridus (seven countries), Amaranthus rudis (two countries). Resistance of Conyza canadensis to triazine herbicides have been identified in nine countries. Other species such . cross- resistance it is where a weed biotype is resistant to two or more herbicides due to presence of a single resistance mechanism. they are of two types- target site based cross resistance metabolism based cross resistance for ex- the 4 classes of chemistry that inhibit als share few similarlities and obiviously bind differently to the.
Studies species. Senecio vulgaris can complete its life cycle in as little as 8 weeks, producing an average of 38, seeds per generation and can be found in gardens, lawns, roadsides, field margins, arable lands, waste places and coastal habitats. Variation in capitula morphology, seed dormancy and growth form have been observed in different S. vulgaris populations (Robinson et al., ). mechanisms of herbicide resistance, fitness and adaptability, gene flow, and management of (Senecio vulgaris L.), became resistant to the triazine herbicide simazine. Information on herbicide resistance in plants has been published in several excellent the same as a S biotype, resistance may decline slowly, if at all.
Inheritance of resistance to simazine was investigated in reciprocal pair crosses of resistant and susceptible genotypes of Senecio vulgaris. The simazine resistant genotypes had been selected in. Comparative growth, development, and resource allocation of triazine - susceptible and triazine - resistant biotypes of common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.), grown under two light regimes, were studied over a 7 - week -matter production, height, number of leaves, and leaf area of the susceptible biotype were greater than those of the resistant biotype at all harvests under both.
Studies on the Mechanism of Resistance to Simazine in Common Groundsel' S. RADOSEVICH and A. APPLEBY2 Abstract. Studies were conducted to determine the effect on photosynthesis, the absorption, and the metabolism of sima-zine [2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine] in two biotypes of common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.).
Simazine. Separate populations of Senecio vulgaris were found that evolved partial tolerance to s-triazine herbicides and others that were totally resistant (plastid resistance).In plants from the susceptible, tolerant, and resistant populations, about one half of applied [14 C]atrazine (2-chloroethylaminoisopropylamino-s-triazine) was rapidly N-dealkylated to the des-ethyl and des-isopropyl Cited by: Whereas S.
vulgaris from a location not previously treated with triazine herbicides required in ppm. of simazine or atrazine, 1 ppm. of GS [4-ethylaminomethoxys-butylamino-1,3,5-triazine] or prometon, or 4 ppm.
of prometryne for complete necrosis when grown in nutrient solution, plants previously reported to be resistant to atrazine and simazine (see WA 20, ) failed to Cited by: Holt JS, Growth and ecological fitness of two common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.) biotypes.
Abstracts, Meeting of the Weed Science Society of America, Holt JS, Reduced growth, competitiveness, and photosynthetic efficiency of triazine-resistant Senecio vulgaris from California. Journal of Applied Ecology, 25(1) Thepretstudy compares the lbding and i activity oftwo pbotosystem nh 3-(3,4ichorophenyl)-1,1-inethyur (diuron IDCMUI) and 2-chlor (ethylamie)-isopropyl amlne)ne (atazine).
Cbroplastsisolated fromnaturlyoccurring triazn-cep tible andtiazin-resistantbiotypesofcommongrdsl(Sscwo uAWi L.) sbowed the folowing c ttics.
(a) Diuron strongly inhi. Both biotypes absorbed the herbicide equally well, and no\ud differences in simazine metabolism were found which could explain\ud the mechanism of resistance.
Plants of both biotypes were subjected\ud to ¹⁴C-simazine for up to 96 hours. The greatest concentration of\ud ¹⁴C activity (80 to 90%) was located in the chloroform-soluble.
Abstract. InRyan (Ryan, ) reported that a population of Senecio vulgaris (L.) was not controlled by recommended rates of simazine in a conifer nursery in Washington state (USA). Since this first report, resistance to photosystem II (PS II) inhibitor herbicides has become widespread.
The next recorded incidence of resistance occurred in when scientists reported the discovery of common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) plants in a conifer nursery that were unable to be controlled by simazine (Radosevitch and Appleby ; Ryan ).
Since these initial findings, the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weeds has increased. The molecular basis of resistance to atrazine has been identified in the following weeds: Kochia scoparia, Solanum nigrum, Senecio vulgaris, Conyza canadensis, Digitaria sanguinalis, Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album.
The resistance was conferred by a glycine for serine substitution at residue of the D1 protein in all of those weeds.
Failure to control common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.) was observed in in a nursery where 2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine (simazine) or 2-chloro(ethylamino)(isopropylamino)-s-triazine (atrazine) had been used once or twice annually since Seedlings from seed collected at that location were not controlled by pre-emergence applications of simazine or atrazine at rates.
Unfortunately, herbicide resistance developed shortly after the introduction of the herbicides 2,4‐D in According the herbicide resistance mechanisms, all processes can be grouped as follows: target‐site resistance, non‐target‐site resistance, cross‐resistance and multiple‐resistance.
Target‐site resistance is generally due to a single or several mutations in the. Abstract. Photosystem II herbicides bind to the D1 protein of the reaction centre of photosystem II. Resistance to these herbicides in plants is confined almost exclusively to the triazine group and involves an altered D1 protein: at site the serine of the wild type is replaced by a glycine.
Comparison of Triazine-Resistant and -Susceptible Biotypes of Senecio vulgaris and Their F1 Hybrids. Simazine resistance was reported for first time in in a biotype of Senecio vulgaris (Ryan, ). Since then there have been numerous reports of weed biotypes exhibiting resistance to PS II‐inhibiting herbicides (Heap, ).
Until now, only two mechanisms of resistance to triazines have been identified. [ 2 - c h l o r o (ethylamino)(isopropylamino)-s-triazine I on isolated leaf cells and chloroplasts of two biotypes of common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.) were studied.
Both biotypes accumulated 14C at the leaf margins 60 hr after exposure of roots to 1 4C-simazine. No difference in herbicide distribution between the two biotypes was. N-dealkylation of atrazine and simazine in Senecio vulgaris biotypes, a major degradation pathway. Pestic. Biochem.
Physiol. Grignac, P. The evolution of resistance to herbicides in weedy species. Agro-Ecosystems Hartmann, F. The atrazine resistance of Amaranthus retroflexus L. and the expansion of resistant biotype.
The resistance in weed Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel) to triazines was detected in USA in and was reported by Ryan in In India, Phalaris minor developed resistance to isoproturon duringand the same was reported by Malik and.
Violaxanthin de-epoxidation, chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, and photosynthetic O2 evolution in the presence of paraquat (Pq) were studied in intact attached leaves of Pq-susceptible, and Pq-resistant (PqR) biotypes of Erigeron canadensis under different light conditions.
Initially, similar changes were induced in the two biotypes, but the effects relaxed only in the PqR plants, indicating. Europe PMC is an ELIXIR Core Data Resource Learn more >. Europe PMC is a service of the Europe PMC Funders' Group, in partnership with the European Bioinformatics Institute; and in cooperation with the National Center for Biotechnology Information at the U.S.
National Library of Medicine (NCBI/NLM).It includes content provided to the PMC International archive by participating publishers.groundsel biotypes (Senecio vulgaris L.) to several s-triazine herbi-cides. Herbicides tested were: 2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s- The Absorption of Simazine by Two Biotypes of Common Groundsel as a Function of Time 31 Experiment The Metabolism of Simazine adaptive mechanism for resistance in both insects and bacteria.Abstract.
Isonuclear triazine-susceptible and triazine-resistant Senecio vulgaris L. biotypes were developed by making reciprocal crosses between susceptible and resistant biotypes to obtain F 1 hybrids and backcrossing the hybrids to the appropriate pollen parent.
The electrophoretic isozyme patterns of the enzyme aconitase obtained from leaf extracts of triazine-susceptible parental (S) and.